The Border Collie is known as being the smartest dog in the world.  Border Collies were developed by shepherds in England and Scotland to have the ability to move small or large herds of sheep in complete cooperation with their master.  The open hilly countryside made it difficult for the shepherd to maintain and care for his sheep.  Without the sheepdogs it would be quite impossible to control the sheep.  It is said that it takes 5 shepherds to do the work of one Border Collie.  The shepherds would breed from the most efficient dogs.  Those that could move the sheep with the least stress and damage to the flocks but also be able to stand up to the most difficult stock while being able to be trained and obey commands.  A most useful asset possessed by many Border Collies is called "the eye".  This is the ability of the Border Collie to control the sheep by staring at them in a fixed and steady manner.  Dogs with the right amount of "eye" can keep their sheep under control thus keeping their sheep calmer and with less injuries.

The black rough coated dog with white collar, white chest and white tip tail was known at least 200 years ago.  The working collie was bread in those days for working only.  There was probably some occasional cross breeding with other farm dogs such as beardies, drover's dogs, pointers and Gordon Setters.  In those days you could see many sheepdogs readily trainable as a successful hunting dog. In photographs taken in the early part of the 20th century there are sheepdogs with large ears set on the head and shaped more like a setters.   Some smaller sharp faced collies are so fox like due to their looks and behavior that it is believed that they were cross bread with the fox. It is not surprising that there are several different types of present day Border Collies. With such a mixed ancestry in a litter of purebred puppies not one may be alike.  They are not bread for looks but yet for brains.  This blood line happens to be beautiful and smart.

In appearance there is a great deal of variation in the Border Collie.  They can be rough-coated or smooth coated, and many have a silky textured coat half way between the rough and smooth type.  Usually termed "semi-rough" or "medium" coated.  They can have long to shot hair.  Border Collies can come with blue, green, brown, black or topaz eyes.  Unlike other breeds that have blue eyes, the Border Collie is not blind.  Border Collies can come in various colors as well as sizes.  They can range from 18 pounds to as well as 70 pounds depending on the bloodline.  As far as colors go they come in all colors.  Black, red merle, blue merle, gold, white with spots, sable, brown or chocolate, and even lilac etc...  One thing to know is a true blooded Border Collie always has a white tipped tail.  The shepherds bred the Border Collie to have the white tipped tail to be their lantern to guide them into the night.